Cervix Cancer

Cervix Cancer – HPV – HPV Injection

Cervix is the point where the uterus joins with the bottom vagina. Cervix cancer does generally develop slowly. The normal cells covering the cervix change progressively and turn into firstly precancerous lesions and then cancer cells if they are not treated. Today, various names are given to precancerous situations: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) or dysplasia. While the cancer is limited to cervix in some patients, it may spread to the surrounding and remote organs in some severe cases.

Cervical cancer is one of the most frequently seen cancer types in women and it is shown as a leading reason for death in many countries. Although it is seen frequently, its prevalence all around the world has decreased at the rate of 70% due to easy performance of smear test. Thousands of cases can be diagnosed every year thanks to pap smear test.

Risk factors for cervix cancer:

  • Sexual act at early ages
  • Polygamy
  • Smoking
  • Poor hygiene
  • AIDS
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV)

As early cervix cancer and CIN don’t generally show any finding, scanning with Pap smear test is very crucial. With smear test, the cells at cervix are taken with a simple brush without any pain and examined under microscope. In some cases, the cervix is examined with colposcopy (a magnifying glass) and biopsy, LEEP or conisation can be implemented if necessary.

In order to detect early cervix cancer, it is recommended to do smear test once a year to every woman who have started sexual act.

As relationship of cervix cancer with HPV is shown directly, less contact with HPV will decrease the risk of infection and therefore precancerous lesions and cancer risk. For this reason, monogamy, use of condoms and HPV injection is important. HPV is an infectious and common virus that may lead to cervix cancer and genital warts. Protection can be provided against approximately 70% of HPV types with injection. Although the age of injection is not clear yet, it is recommended to be used between 12-26 ages. HPV injection is used in 3 doses within 6 months.


Treatment of cervix cancer is based on severity and spreading degree of the disease. Surgical treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapy can be applied. Early onset cervix cancers can be treated easily with laparoscopic surgery.
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