Polycystic Over Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Over Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic over syndrome is a health problem affecting menstruation, hormones, potential to become pregnant, physical appearances and some systemic organs (such as heart and blood vessels) of women. Its characteristic findings are increase in androgens, delayed or irregular menstruation and a number of small cysts in the ovaries detected in ultrasonography. PCOS can be observed in approximately one of 10 women in fertility period. Polycystic ovary is one of the most important reasons of female infertility.

Reasons

Although reasons for polycystic ovary are not known exactly, it is considered that some factors (such as genetic and insulin metabolism) trigger this syndrome. Some researchers detected that Polycystic ovary is a genetic inheritance within family and even mothers or sisters of Polycystic ovary patients have it. It is also considered that the insulin hormone which regulates diabetes metabolism and use or storage of foods by inverting into energy is associated with Polycystic ovary. Excessive insulin in the body leads to pimples, hairing, weight gain and ovulation problems in Polycystic ovary patients.

Although same symptoms aren’t observed in all PCOS patients, the main findings are:

  • amenorrheic, irregular menstrual periods
  • infertility based on ovulation disorders
  • hirsutism (hairing on face, back, breast, abdomen)
  • ovary cysts
  • acne, oily skin, dandruffs
  • weight gain, obesity
  • insulin resistance or Type 2 Diabetes
  • high cholesterol and hypertension
  • manlike alopecia
  • stomachache
  • snoring and apnea


During a normal menstruation period, approximately 15-20 oocytes begin to mature every month in woman and generally one of them matures completely, it leaves the ovary and enters into the tubes and it is inseminated with sperm. In polycystic ovary patients, approximately 20 immature oocytes cause cystic formations and ovulation doesn’t occur due to the problems during complete maturation process of oocyte.

Polycystic ovary is diagnosed by detecting a number of small cysts through ultrasonography considering some hormone levels together with signs and examination of the patient.

The aim of polycystic ovary treatment is to decrease existing signs and prevent possible systemic diseases (heart diseases, diabetes….).

  • Contraceptives: can be used to regulate menstruation in the patients who don’t want to become pregnant, to decrease male hormone levels and to decrease acne formation.
  • Metphormine: Glucophage affects insulin metabolism in polycystic ovary patients and controls diabetes levels. Furthermore, it has some effects such as decrease in hairing and return of ovulation after use of several months.
  • Fertility treatment: pregnancy can be achieved by using some drugs stimulating ovulation (chlomiphene citrate, gonadotropine) or IVF method in severe cases.
  • Over hairing and androgen increase: anti-androgen drugs such as Diane 35 or Aldactone are used.
  • Surgical treatment: a needle is inserted into the small cysts in ovaries and they are emptied by means of a method called laparoscopic over drilling.
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