Hysteroscopy is intrauterine observation with a special optic device called hysteroscope by entering through vagina and cervix. Hysteroscopy operation is performed under a mild general anesthesia. Generally, duration of operation doesn’t exceed 30 minutes.

Using this method, a speculum is placed into the vagina firstly and then the vagina is disinfected. The hysteroscope in thickness of 3-5 mm is inserted into uterus through cervix. CO2 gas or special liquids given through hysteroscope duct are used to inflate intra-uterus. The image taken with hysteroscope is transferred to the monitor by means of optic-camera system.

What is diagnostic hysteroscopy?

Diagnostic hysteroscopy is intrauterine observation for the purpose of diagnosis. It is generally performed under local anesthesia. It is used for exact diagnosis when diagnosis is impossible with other means or the diagnosis is suspected. Mode of treatment can easily be programmed by determining whether there is any intrauterine anomaly; if any, real sizes and places of the anomalies. If required, operative hysteroscopy can be performed during the same session.

It helps diagnosis of the following states:

  • Polyps or myomas causing excessive bleeding
  • Congenital uterus anomalies (septum, bicornis, arcuate, hypoplasia)
  • Intrauterine adhesions
  • Early onset cancers of endometrium can be diagnosed. Biopsy can be taken from suspected region under direct observation.
  • Taking out the spiral not seen or slipped into uterus
  • Research on repeating abortions
  • Research on repeating IVF failures
  • To confirm abnormal hysterosalpinegography (HSG) or ultrasound finding.

What is operative hysteroscopic?

With operative hysteroscopy method which is generally applied under general anesthesia, intrauterine anomalies can be treated. It is an advanced form of diagnostic hysteroscopy. After all intrauterine structures are displayed in details; any pathology can be remedied or resected using an electrosurgical system called resectoscope.

The following diseases are treated:

  • Polyp resection
  • Myoma resection (submucosa)
  • Congenital uterine anomalies (septum): may lead to repeating abortions.
  • Intrauterine adhesions
  • Excessive menstrual bleeding: Endometrium is extracted in order to stop excessive menstrual bleeding in spite of medicine treatments (no desire for baby in the future)
  • Proximal tubal stenosis or obstruction (tubal canulation)

What are the advantages of operative hysteroscopy?

The problems above can be treated without open operation or hysterectomy. Especially, the operation in the form of abortion or open operation on abdomen in the women undergoing infertility treatment or planning to have baby in the future may make it difficult to become pregnant or lead to new infertility reasons (such as intra-abdominal adhesions). Hysteroscopic surgery is the most successful treatment method especially this group of women.
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