Ovarian Cancer

What is ovarian cancer?

Cancer, (ca) in brief, is the abnormal and uncontrolled proliferation of cells belonging to a particular organ or tissue. These uncontrollably multiplying cells come together and cause formations called tumors. The tumor structure formed by the abnormal and irregular proliferation of cells in the ovary is called ovarian cancer.

The disease can be treated with early diagnosis, but it generally progresses insidiously since it does not cause major complaints in the initial stages. Therefore, detailed information about the symptoms of the initial stages should be known and all complaints should be evaluated in terms of ovarian cancer.

Risk factors of ovarian cancer

  • Never been pregnant
  • History of infertility
  • History of ovarian cancer in family

How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?

Early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is difficult because the symptoms are subtle and do not attract the attention of the patient in the early stages of the disease. Routine gynecological examination and ultrasonography, if necessary, some blood tests (Ca-125) are recommended to patients. The definitive diagnosis is determined by the surgical procedure and pathology result.

Surgical staging is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. Chemotherapy is used many times following surgery. Especially patients with a family history of ovarian cancer should go to routine controls.

The treatment of ovarian cancer

Ultrasonography and Ca-125 tests should be investigated. In the treatment of ovarian cancer, it is important to decide on the treatment with a personalized approach: The decision should be made according to the age of the patient, the condition of the tumor and the determined stage. The applications used in the treatment of ovarian cancer can be explained as surgical and medical applications:

Surgical and medical treatment: Oncologic treatment should be planned following surgical removal of cancerous tissues or the entire uterus (hysterectomy). Chemotherapy and radiology are widely used within the scope of medical treatment.

Hysterectomy

It is the process of removing the entire uterus from the body. Hysterectomy can be performed as abdominal (open method), vaginal and laparoscopic (closed). The first choice is always the vaginal hysterectomy method. If it cannot be removed only vaginally, laparoscopic removal of the uterus should be preferred. The open method should be offered to patients as a last choice because of the advantages of other methods.

Advantages of Laparoscopic Hysterectomy over open method

  • Better visualization
  • Less risk of complication per- or postoperatively
  • Less pain is experienced since scars are minimal. Drug treatment is required for shorter duration.
  • Less duration of hospital stay
  • Faster return to routine
  • Less cost

In short, laparoscopic hysterectomy performed by experienced surgeons is a safe, comfortable and advantageous operation for both the patient and the surgeon, and the complication rates are very low.


Other conditions for which Laparoscopic Hysterectomy can be performed

  • Myomas can be resected laparoscopically with myomectomy (removal of myoma) or if required, hysterectomy.
  • Laparoscopic hysterectomy can be performed in early stage cervical cancer.
  • Laparoscopic hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy (removal of lymph node) if required, can be performed in intrauterine (endometrium) bleeding that is not stopped by medication, atypical hyperplasia or cancer of uterus.
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