Globozoospermia is defined as the absence of acrosome structure in the head region of sperm cells (Type I globozoospermia) or very small acrosome structure (Type II globozoospermia).
The enzymes in the acrosome are required for fertilization and egg activation, and thus in the case of globozoospermia, although ICSI is performed, fertilization is either absent or occurs very little. In this situation, chemical triggers named “Ionophore” are used to increase egg activation after ICSI. The main stimulus initiating the acrosome reaction is the entry of calcium into the cell. Calcium ionophore is not routinely present in culture media, and oocytes are activated by adding it to culture media with a special technique for selected patient groups. Thereby a high rate of fertilization can be achieved. Success can be achieved with this method in patients who have never been able to achieve fertilization with classical IVF media.
Type I and Tip II globozoospermia
In our center, we achieve good embryo development with high fertilization rates in this patient group by using a special molecule called Ionomycin, which opens intracellular calcium channels and enables egg and sperm activation.